Package managers for Mac OS/X


MacPort 	- formerly Darwin port
		  contain lot of "unix style" software packages.
		  install to /opt/local

fink		= package manager like Ubuntu apt-get.
		  need to be installed separately.
		  more cutting edge that Mac OS Port.
		  install to /sw

rudix		= pre-compiled unix sw for OS X (Yosemite in progress, Maverick and older okay)
		  hassle-free.  http://rudix.org/


homebrew	= http://brew.sh/
		  install to /usr/local, which is said why it works!  changing path not recommended!
		  have not been able to get it to install/work behind a proxy :( 

nix		= from NixOS, meant to be a declarative (stateless) package management.  
		  package are build from source, but cached to provide performance close to traditional binary-based package manager.


dmg are sw image that are "mounted", accessible from /Volumes.  
Firefox can run off inside such mount.  
Other apps req copying the files there to /Applications folder.  
Yet other require an install from there.

installer -pkg Fink*pkg -target LocalSystem
	# similar to rpm -i sw.rpm 
  	# -target LocalSystem is the equiv of the GUI telling where to put the program.  Should be able to use / also.


pkgutil --pkgs 		# list packages installed on system (.pkg, not stuff that Fink install, which are .deb packages).





fink install all software to /sw
. /sw/bin/init.sh


fink selfupdate
 			# update fink db, support http_proxy env var if proxy need to be set.
fink list 
fink install ...

apt-get
dpkg --list 		# list debian packages (installed by fink)

intel-based mac stuff


while booting up:
option	= select OS to boot with (when bootcamp is configured)
apple+t = target firewire disk mode  (or just press T key?)
apple+v = verbose mode (this time only)
apple+s = single user mode (but don't run fsck from here! boot from DVD for such action!)  (or just s ?)

shift   = Safe Boot mode - https://support.apple.com/en-us/HT201262



command+r = recovery mode (same as a the recovery choice when "option" key boot).

Permanently disable flashy non-useful boot screen (ie, verbose unix-like booting):
go to terminal, run
	sudo nvram boot-args="-v"
To see current settings:
	nvram -p   			




Older mac stuff


key binding:

cmd key is the apple key
option = alt
ctrl  = control (^)

cmd+tab = similar to windoze alt+tab
boot, option key = boot current os
boot, c = boot from cd
apple + control + power = reboot

---

Enable unix mode boot:
Older Macs:
While booting, enter cmd+opt+O-F
then,
setenv boot-args=-v
shut-down 
This will cause machine to boot like sun machines.


switching between XDarwin X session and Aqua:
ctrl+opt+A
(10.5, they can coexist together)

---


NIS info from
http://www.bresink.de/osx/nis.html

OS X can act as NIS server.
yp files are in /var/yp
init rc file (?) at
/System/Library/StartupItems/DirectoryServices/DirectoryServices 


OS X NIS client.
Some minimal info in lookupd.
Leopard 10.5 has NIS client build-in.  Just need to specify NIS domain and servers.


NFS mount.  Can specify the mounts in /etc/fstab, linux format.

Troubleshooting boot up

Info from Jim.  Appicable to old Mac (PowerPC) 

If the critter won't start up with the C key held down, try the
following (with the CD in the drive)
Hold the Option key on startup, and choose the CD icon and then click
the right-pointing arrow, or
hold control-option-shift-delete on startup.

The former is an Open Firmware method, and the latter is a shortcut to
tell the MacOS Rom to boot form the next available system volume.

If both of these methods fail, restart and hold down option-apple-p-r
for four startup chimes, then try the above methods again. (this resets
pram)


Progies

iTerm : a better terminal prog than the one that comes with OS X.

References

  • http://www.osxfaq.com/Tutorials/LearningCenter/HowTo/Startup/index.ws sample startup script in location which is now deemed archaic:
    /System/Library/StartupItems - Apple's only /Library/StartupItems - User's customization
  • http://developer.apple.com/macosx/launchd.html launchd article from ADC
  • http://oreilly.com/pub/a/mac/2002/10/22/macforunix.html Mac tips for Unix geeks




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